The mitochondrion regulates energy production also as intracellular signaling and should be especially sensitive to the consequences of elevated cortisol thanks to chronic stress . Mitochondria’s morphology and performance are altered by neuroendocrine mediators and metabolic changes related to the strain response. If persistent, mitochondrial damage may cause mitochondrial allostatic load (MAL) .
MAL can trigger signaling cascades known to scale back energy production and overall capacity within the cell and influencing cellular organic phenomenon also as initiate extracellular damage by promoting pathogenic inflammation and altering the circulating metabolome . These changes yield broad ranging effects on cell-specific parameters (intracellularly) and whole organism function (systemically). Thus, mitochondria, by providing energy to animate and regulate these different regulatory networks, and via their role in cell and whole-body signaling play a key role within the development of pathological changes across organ systems .
Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause organ-specific, also as multi-systemic defects throughout the organism by increasing oxidative stress . Symptoms of mitochondrial disorders often manifest simultaneously within the neuromuscular system causing exercise intolerance and myopathy, within the brain with stroke-like episodes and structural cortical and sub-cortical anomalies, gut dysmotility and constipation, hearing and vision loss, and insulin resistance, among others .
Likewise, psychological stress and other psychosocial experiences may influence mitochondrial function via multiple neuroendocrine and metabolic mechanisms , which influence neuroendocrine, metabolic, and transcriptional responses to acute stress. Therefore, metabolic activities within mitochondria may regulate cellular and organismal responses to environmental perturbations and thus contribute to get individualized states of health or illness.